Kazakhstan has concluded bilateral treaties on the encouragement and mutual protection of investments with 42 countries. Kazakhstan is also a party to a number of multilateral treaties concerning foreign investments (for example, the Energy Charter). Investment treaties provide for a number of guarantees to nationals of member countries, including most-favored-nation treatment, protection against discrimination, requisition and nationalization and the right to resolution of investment disputes by international arbitration in the absence of an arbitration agreement. By June 1, 2011 bilateral treaties on the promotion and mutual protection of investments exist with the following countries :
Belgium and Luxembourg
Iran, Islamic Republic
Certain industries are subject to foreign ownership restrictions whereby a foreign
shareholder may not own more than a certain specified percentage in the company.
For example, foreign companies may not own more than 20% of shares in local
mass media companies and more than 49% in local telecommunication companies
which operate long distance and trunk communication lines.