Kazakhstan was originally settled by nomadic tribes who united in the late 15th and early 16th centuries in a political confederation known as the Kazakh Khanate. By virtue of many ethnopolitical and economic factors on the territory of Kazakhstan three ethno-territorial associations were formed: the Senior, Middle and Junior Juzes. The division into juzes was the result of a complex process – the formation of the Kazakh ethnic national group, and left its characteristic stamp on local cultural and
political affiliations.The Kazakh Khanate was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and transformed into other forms of governance that reported to Russia. After the Great October Revolution, the Bolsheviks took control over the territory. On 5 December 1936, Kazakhstan was made a constituent republic of the Soviet Union and named the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
On 25 October 1990, Kazakhstan declared itself an independent sovereign state and on 16 December 1991 Kazakhstan proclaimed its independence.