Kazakhstan is rich in natural resources, most notably oil and natural gas, but also coal and minerals, including iron ore, chromium, uranium, copper, nickel, cobalt, gold and many others.
In addition, Kazakhstan has considerable agricultural potential in both grain and livestock production. Development of these natural resources has been hindered by the fact that Kazakhstan is a landlocked country, giving rise to infrastructure and transport cost issues, especially for bulk commodities. Potential export routes are also vulnerable to political and economic instability in neighboring countries. Nevertheless, the abundance of natural resources has attracted considerable interest among international investors, particularly in the oil and gas sectors.